In tunnel excavation, the “traditional method” refers to a set of methods and techniques where human intervention is greater than that of machines. The role of mechanical means here is one of support, being used at different times throughout the tunnelling process. Within this methodology framework, the excavation is then divided into distinct, sequential phases, all of which employ different means and methods.

The first phase involves reinforcing the land to be excavated in order to make it stronger, more homogenous and thus safer to work on in the following phases. The second phase is the actual removal of earth and rock. The third and final phase is the lining of the tunnel, which is needed to make the construction stable over time. Depending on the geological features of the earth to be removed, mechanical means are used during these three phases, especially for reinforcement, threading or riveting. Machines may also be necessary during the excavation phase, when explosives are not used.

Toto has always invested in the most advanced technology and latest innovations available in order to develop avant-garde solutions along with its designers and suppliers. During the eighties and nineties, Toto Costruzioni Generali developed and implemented traditional excavation techniques through the constant specialisation and professional development of its workers and the adoption of increasingly innovative machines.

The range and depth of skill of the Toto workforce, aided by these machines, has led to the construction of numerous tunnels, many of which stand out due to the complexity of geological and engineering considerations. Among these are: the Valico Bypass on the A1 motorway (Val di Sambro Tunnel, Manganaccia, Puliana, Alteta), the tunnels along the A3 Salerno-Reggio Calabria motorway (Serralunga, Vetrano and Serrone Tondo Tunnels), on the SS 16 Adriatica Bypass (Pescara - Francavilla Bypass); the S. Silvestro and Le Piane Tunnels on the E45 Orte-Ravenna and those in the Caramanico area (Fontegrande Tunnel, Caramanico Tunnel) all stand out due to their complicated nature.


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